As a new stateless multicast technology, the BIER protocol keeps multicast state information on the ingress and egress nodes of multicast traffic. The intermediate nodes do not perceive multicast traffic, establish multicast forwarding trees, or maintain multicast forwarding state information. BIER multicast is applicable to large-scale multicast service deployment scenarios, such as multicast VPN service and IPTV/OTT service. BIER multicast elements carry key information such as BFR-ID, SD, BSL and encapsulation by BFR-prefix. Each BIER router in the network establishes a BIER forwarding table based on these key information to forward BIER encapsulation packets.